Requisite Organization Timeline

The Evolution of Requisite Organization from 1947 to Today

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The work behind Requisite Organization reaches back to the early 1950’s when Dr. Elliott Jaques made the discovery that individual accountability was key in creating a system of accountable managerial leadership. The RO Timeline below shows the progression of Requisite Organization from inception to today, including key points relating to sociology, theory, psychology, economics and major studies. Click a year below to jump to information.

1950’s | 1960’s | 1970’s | 1980’s | 1990’s | 21st Century

1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

Sociology

Sociology

Sociology

Discovery of INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY as key to individually accountable authoritative managerial leadership — as opposed to Group Dynamics or Personality. (The Changing of a Factory, 1951) Discovery of UNIVERSAL OPTIMUM STRUCTURE OF MANAGERIAL LAYERS. Led to method for eliminating the worst features of “bureaucracy”. Formulation of basic BUSINESS UNIT organization. Based on 1950’s discoveries of Time-Span Measurement and Optimum Managerial Layering. As Director, established BIOSS (Brunel Institute of Organization and Social Studies), with units in Health Services, Measurement of Capability, Social Services, Youth Services, Mental Handicap, and Policy Studies. This applied research institution
reflected the P-S-E orientation.Major long-term engagements:

BRITISH NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE organization (Hospital Organization, 1973, R. Rowbottom, and Health Services, 1978)

CHURCH OF ENGLAND organization of the clerical hierarchy.

Theory

Theory

Sociology

Systematic definition of a wide range of FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS:

WORK, TASK and ROLE

Manager and MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY and Authority;

Lateral working relationships [later called TIRRs];

STAFF SPECIALIST ROLES. (See Glacier Project Papers, 1965, with W. Brown)

Discovery of TIME-SPAN as objective measure of level of work. (Later published in Time-Span Handbook, 1964)

Preliminary Formulation of a GENERAL THEORY OF HIERARCHICAL
ORGANIZATION
. (Glacier Project Papers, ch. 7 & 8)
(Led to publication of A General Theory of Bureaucracy, 1976)As Head of School of Social Sciences at Brunel University, developed the
FIRST INTER-DISCIPLINARY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES.
Jaques applied his unique P-S-E approach integrating Psychology, Sociology and Economics
in a unified Social Sciences undergraduate degree.
STRATIFIED SYSTEMS THEORY (SST)—first formulation of a TOTAL SYSTEM of Organization of Managerial Hierarchical Systems. (A General Theory of Bureaucracy, 1976) Began to develop a theory of the underlying NATURE OF HUMAN CAPABILITY, which emerged in work with the US Army in the 1980’s. (Preliminary ideas and research published in Levels of Abstraction in Logic and Human Action, 1978, with R.O. Gibson
and D.J. Isaac.)

Psychology

Psychology

Sociology

Discovery of PREDICTABLE LIFE-LONG MATURATION OF POTENTIAL CAPABILITY.
(Later published in Progression Handbook, 1968, which led to construction of potential capability maturation bands.)
Expanding areas of study in:

British CIVIL SERVICE

PARTNERSHIPS

HEALTH SERVICES Organization

“Death and the Mid-life Crisis” first published in International Journal
of PsychoAnalysis
(1965). (see also 1956 and 1990)

Hypothesis about the predictable MATURATION THROUGHOUT ADULTHOOD
OF POTENTIAL CAPABILITY
, confirmed by researchers at Harvard Business School (doctoral thesis by E. Homa) and at UCLA (Tom Kohler, unpublished).

Economics

Economics

Discovery of WORLD-WIDE STRUCTURE OF FELT-FAIR PAY DIFFERENTIALS
related to differentials in Levels of Work. (Measurement of Responsibility, 1956)
Basic studies on THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRICING (Product Analysis Pricing, 1964, with W. Brown). Development of SYSTEMATIC COMPENSATION SCHEMES based on Felt-Fair Pay Differentials. (Equitable Payment, 1961, and later, Fair Pay and Work, 1971, by R. Richardson)

Dr. Jaques…

Dr. Jaques…

Dr. Jaques…

Discovery of INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY as key to individually accountable authoritative managerial leadership— as opposed to Group Dynamics or Personality. >> Lead to Jaques disassociating himself from group dynamics and personality studies—a substantial shift in perspective as Jaques was a founding member of The Tavistock Institute.Leaves Tavistock Institute.

Systematic definition of a wide range of FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS.

Discovery of TIME-SPAN as objective measure of level of work.

Discovery of WORLD-WIDE STRUCTURE OF FELT-FAIR PAY DIFFERENTIALS related to differentials in Levels of Work.

“Death and the Mid-life Crisis” in which Jaques articulated the concept and coined the phrase “mid-life crisis,” presented to the British PsychoAnalytical Society. (1956)

Discovery of WORLDWIDE STRUCTURE OF FELT-FAIR PAY DIFFERENTIALS related to differentials in Levels of Work.

Discovery of PREDICTABLE LIFELONG MATURATION OF POTENTIAL CAPABILITY, leading on to the construction of potential capability bands.

Expanding areas of study in:

British CIVIL SERVICE

PARTNERSHIPS

HEALTH SERVICES Organization

Basic studies on THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PRICING

Formulation of BUSINESS UNIT organization.

Development of SYSTEMATIC COMPENSATION SCHEMES based on Felt-Fair Pay Differentials.

“Death and the Mid-life Crisis” first published in International Journal of PsychoAnalysis.

Preliminary Formulation of a GENERAL THEORY OF HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION.

As Head of School of Social Sciences at Brunel University, developed the FIRST INTERDISCIPLINARY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES,
applying P-S-E orientation.

As Director, established the Brunel Institute of Organization and Social Studies (BIOSS), with units in Health Services, Measurement of Capability, Social Services, Youth Services, Mental Handicap, and Policy Studies. This applied research institution reflected the P-S-E orientation.BRITISH NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE organization. CHURCH OF ENGLAND organization of the clerical hierarchy.

STRATIFIED SYSTEMS THEORY— First formulation of a TOTAL SYSTEM of Organization of Managerial Hierarchical Systems.

Began to develop a theory of the underlying discontinuous NATURE OF HUMAN CAPABILITY, which emerged in work with the US Army in the 1980’s.

Hypothesis about the predictable MATURATION THROUGHOUT ADULTHOOD OF POTENTIAL CAPABILITY, confirmed by researchers at Harvard Business School and at UCLA.


1980’s

1990’s

21st Century

Theory

Sociology

Sociology

As an outcome of the discovery and use of Time-Span, development of
THEORY OF THE NATURE OF TIME, as a philosophical foundation for establishing the fundamental importance of our constructs of time in the study of human behavior and social organization. (The Form of Time, 1981)
Confirmed hypothesis that MANAGERIAL HIERARCHY is an EXPRESSION of
the STEP-WISE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CAPABILITY in organization.REQUISITE ORGANIZATION—Full-scale elaboration of a TOTAL SYSTEM
of managerial hierarchical organization and leadership.
(Requisite Organization, first edition, 1989).
CIVIL SERVICE TALENT POOL DEVELOPMENT
Canadian Federal Civil Service (with Ron Capelle). Requisite Organization Development For The Nova Scotia
PROVINCIAL HEALTH SERVICES. 
Broadening of REQUISITE ORGANIZATION STUDIES INTO ASIA.Collaboration in initiating a project concerned with strengthening the
ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS and LEADERSHIP in POLICE
DEPARTMENTS
across the U.S.A.
Formulation and application of alternative organizational arrangements
to cope with the complex requirements of GLOBAL CORPORATIONS
engaged in establishing businesses worldwide.Methods of Organizing Accountable Managerial Systems for the CONTROL OF DANGEROUS PROCESSES such as nuclear generation,
manufacture and transportation of lethal products, chemical refineries.
Development of methods for the Measurement of Quantity and
COMPLEXITY OF INFORMATION, and ORGANIZATION OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.

Psychology

Theory

Theory

Discovery of FOUR RECURSIVE STEPS OF INCREASING COMPLEXITY OF MENTAL
PROCESSING
, led to confirmation of hypothesis of managerial hierarchy as an expression of human capability (Human Capability, 1994, with K. Cason).
Construction of a GENERAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP and
leadership practices. (Executive Leadership, 1991, with S. Clement)

REQUISITE ORGANIZATION—extensive development of a TOTAL SYSTEM
of organization, using recent findings reported in a revised second edition
of Requisite Organization, 1997.

Development of methods for the RATIO NUMERICAL MEASUREMENT
OF POTENTIAL CAPABILITY.
Legal Analysis of EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY legislation in relation to talent pool development processes, of mentoring related
to individual development, and of selection procedures.Establishment of the parameters in human childhood of the specific, step-wise maturation into the use of languaging, as compared to the development of other species. (Life and Behavior of Living Organisms, A General Theory, 2002)

Major Studies

Psychology

Psychology

Interactive CRA Project and US Army
Project run throughout 1980s. CRA study lead to:

• Development of Organization Design at HIGHER

CORPORATE LEVELS (i.e. Str V—VII). [Sociology]

Development of TALENT POOL ANALYSIS
process. [Psychology]

PERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPRAISAL process
clarified. [Psychology]

MERIT COMPENSATION RECOGNITION. [Economics]

Clarified concepts of MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP as
INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY for use of Specified
Practices. [Psychology and Sociology]

CROSS-FUNCTIONAL PROCESS CONTROL
without unfocused cross-functional teams. [Sociology]

LATERAL WORKING RELATIONSHIP analysis
completed. [Sociology]

US Army Project led to:

Study of INTER-SERVICES RELATIONSHIPS. [Sociology]

Contribution to RESTRUCTURING OF ROLE OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF. [Sociology]

Study of BATTLEFIELD COMPLEXITY led to the study of complexity of mental processing. [Psychology]

A general analysis of the NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL CAPABILITY—Potential
and Applied—and a report of the studies carried out for the US Army Research Institute. (Human Capability, 1994, with K. Cason)
Commencement of synthesizing a life’s work under the working title,
“A GENERAL THEORY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
AND THE NATURE OF SOCIETY.”

Dr. Jaques…

Dr. Jaques…

Dr. Jaques…

INTERACTIVE ON-GOING STUDIES AT CRA AND US ARMY throughout the 1980sRetired from Brunel Institute of Social Sciences (BIOSS).
As an outcome of the discovery and use of Time-Span of Discretion, development of THEORY OF THE NATURE OF TIME, and its fundamental importance in the study of human behavior and social organization.Discovery of FOUR RECURSIVE STEPS OF INCREASING COMPLEXITY OF MENTAL PROCESSING.
Confirmed hypothesis that MANAGERIAL HIERARCHY is an EXPRESSION of the STEP-WISE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CAPABILITY in organization.

REQUISITE ORGANIZATION – Full-scale elaboration of a TOTAL SYSTEM of managerial hierarchical organization and leadership. (1988)

Publication of a collection of articles including “Death and the Mid-Life Crisis.” (Creativity and Work, 1990)Construction of a GENERAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP and leadership practices.

1992 CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION received from General Colin Powell and The Joint Chiefs of Staff.

A general analysis of the NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL CAPABILITY—Potential and Applied—and a report of the studies carried out for the US Army Research Institute.

REQUISITE ORGANIZATION – extensive development of a TOTAL SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION, using recent findings.

CIVIL SERVICE TALENT POOL DEVELOPMENT (with Ron Capelle).

PROVINCIAL HEALTH SERVICES organization.

Broadening of REQUISITE ORGANIZATION STUDIES INTO ASIA.

Collaboration in project concerned with ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS and LEADERSHIP in POLICE DEPARTMENTS (USA)

Publication of his last two seminal works: Social Power and the CEO, Leadership and Trust in a Sustainable Free Enterprise System, 2002 (Quorum Books) and Life and Behavior of Living Organisms, A General Theory, 2002 (Praeger)Dr. Elliott Jaques passed away on March 8, 2003 at the age of 86. His legacy lives on through continuing study and application of his work which contributed greatly to our understanding of human nature and human industry — knowledge which enables us to take effective actions towards the creation of productive, trust-inducing social systems. Thank you, Elliott!

 

Access Supporting Books and Documents

Further, you may want to access information about Elliott Jaques, including his Biography, a Timeline of Research from 1947 to the present, and an extensive Bibliography citing the work of Jaques and others in the specialized area of Stratified Systems Theory and Requisite Organization. Visit our Library for more information and free downloads, and visit the Cason Hall & Co. store to purchase the works of Elliott Jaques in books and audio.